November 28, 2020

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Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens

Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens
Author : Takehiko Nohmi,Shoji Fukushima
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2016-05-20
Category : Medical
Total pages :224
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Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation brings together current opinion and research activities from Japan, the US, and Europe on the subject of genotoxic thresholds. In regulation, it is an adage that genotoxic carcinogens have no thresholds for action, and that they impose cancer risk on humans even at very low levels. This policy is frequently called into question as humans possess a number of defense mechanisms including detoxication, DNA repair, and apoptosis, meaning there is a threshold at which these genotoxic carcinogens take action. The book examines these potential thresholds, describing the potential cancer risks of daily low-level exposure, the mechanisms involved (such as DNA repair, detoxication, translesion DNA synthesis), chemical and statistical methods of analysis, and the ways in which these may be utilized to inform policy. Thresholds of Genotoxic Carcinogens: From Mechanisms to Regulation is an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation. Unites an international team of experts to provide a balanced overview of the current opinion on thresholds of genotoxic carcinogens Provides all the information readers need to determine a safe threshold for potential genotoxic carcinogens Includes information on the mechanisms of genotoxic carcinogens and how these can inform regulation Serves as an essential reference for any professional researchers in genetic toxicology and those involved in toxicological regulation

The Cellular Response to the Genotoxic Insult

The Cellular Response to the Genotoxic Insult
Author : Helmut Greim,Richard Albertini
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2015-11-09
Category : Science
Total pages :129
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Genotoxic carcinogens can lead to DNA mutations with the potential to cause cancer. Typically, a series of mutation events are needed before malignancy occurs so a single, small exposure may not result in disease. Also, cells have an armoury of defence mechanisms which, to a degree, counter the effects of mutagens. Distinguishing the point at which exposure to a carcinogen increases mutation rates beyond the background level is challenging. In fact, there is now general agreement that, for genotoxic carcinogens, no specific threshold can be identified. However, NOAELs (No Observed Adverse Effect Levels) may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship. These denote the level of exposure at which there is no significant increase in adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to an appropriate control. Such a scientifically defendable threshold allows us to propose health based exposure limits for genotoxic carcinogens. This book describes the various cellular defence mechanisms individually and explains how they are regulated. The processes covered include metabolic inactivation, epigenetic regulation, scavenging mechanisms, DNA-repair and apoptosis. It also considers dose-dependent threshold mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the rate limiting parameters. Aimed at graduate level and above, the book discusses the consequences of genotoxic evaluation and urges readers to question the idea that even low exposures present a cancer risk.

Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union

Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union
Author : Tim Marrs,Kevin Woodward
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2018-02-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :617
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Consumer and environmental protection depend on the careful regulation of all classes of chemicals. Toxicology is the key science used to evaluate safety and so underpins regulatory decisions on chemicals. With the growing body of EU legislation involved in chemical regulation, there is a concomitant need to understand the toxicological principles underlying safety assessments Regulatory Toxicology in the European Union is the first book to cover regulatory toxicology specifically in Europe. It addresses the need for a wider understanding of the principles of regulatory toxicology and their application and presents the relationship between toxicology and legislative processes in regulating chemical commodities across Europe. This title has a broad scope, covering historical and current chemical regulation in Europe, the role of European agencies and institutions, and also the use of toxicology data for important classes of chemicals, including human and veterinary medicines, animal feed and food additives, biocides, pesticides and nanomaterials. This book is therefore extremely pertinent and timely in the toxicology field at present. This book is an essential reference for regulatory authorities, industrialists, academics, undergraduates and postgraduates working within safety and hazards, toxicology, the biological sciences, and the medicinal and pharmaceutical sciences across the European Union.

Cancer Risk Assessment

Cancer Risk Assessment
Author : Ching-Hung Hsu,Todd Stedeford
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2010-12-08
Category : Science
Total pages :856
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With a weight-of-the-evidence approach, cancer risk assessment indentifies hazards, determines dose-response relationships, and assesses exposure to characterize the true risk. This book focuses on the quantitative methods for conducting chemical cancer risk assessments for solvents, metals, mixtures, and nanoparticles. It links these to the basic toxicology and biology of cancer, along with the impacts on regulatory guidelines and standards. By providing insightful perspective, Cancer Risk Assessment helps researchers develop a discriminate eye when it comes to interpreting data accurately and separating relevant information from erroneous.

Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals

Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals
Author : Elsa Nielsen,Grete Ostergaard,John Christian Larsen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2008-02-21
Category : Medical
Total pages :448
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Unlike many existing books on toxicology that cover either toxicity of a particular substance or toxicity of chemicals on particular organ systems, Toxicological Risk Assessment of Chemicals: A Practical Guide lays out the principle activities of conducting a toxicological risk assessment, including international approaches and methods for the risk assessment of chemical substances. It illustrates each step in the process: hazard identification, a dose response assessment, and exposure assessment. The book also summarizes the basic concepts of interaction of chemicals in mixtures and discusses various approaches to testing such mixtures. Features: Addresses standards from all international regulatory agencies Presents the steps in risk assessment, including hazard identification, exposure assessment, and risk characterization Covers the assessment of multiple chemical exposures or chemical mixtures Contains data from both human and animal studies Explains the linearized multi-stage mathematical model widely used by the US EPA for characterizing

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models of Mutagens and Carcinogens

Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) Models of Mutagens and Carcinogens
Author : Romualdo Benigni
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2003-02-26
Category : Medical
Total pages :304
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Applied with success in a number of areas, QSAR studies have become particularly popular in the rational design of drugs and pesticides. Much has been published on the principles of QSAR in this area, but not on their application s to toxic chemicals. This book provides the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary presentation of QSAR studies on

Regulatory Toxicology

Regulatory Toxicology
Author : MICHAEL SCHWENK. FRANZ-XAVER REICHL
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2019
Category : Chemistry
Total pages :129
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Endocrine Disrupters

Endocrine Disrupters
Author : Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati,Luc Hens,Vyvyan C. Howard
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2013-03-14
Category : Medical
Total pages :377
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During recent decades, millions of tonnes of man-made chemicals have been produced and released into the environment, with very little safety testing. Many of these chemical substances have been found to interfere with the endocrine system and modulate its function. This book not only overviews the effects of endocrine/disrupting substances on human health, but also addresses the regulatory problems from the point of view of international organisations, including the WHO, the EU, and the European Chlorine Industry. This volume contains the proceedings of a workshop held at the International Hippocrates Foundation on Kos Island, Greece, in September 1999. The workshop was part of the activities of the ASPIS project, which aims at raising awareness of environmental health impacts among multidisciplinary groups. The contributions to this volume are the result of the interaction of participants at the workshop. As such, it addresses the issue of endocrine disrupters from many different points of view and allows the subject to be approached by a multidisciplinary readership, including: decision makers, medical doctors, environmental experts, post/and undergraduate students, lawyers, engineers, and journalists.

Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment: R-Z, Index

Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment: R-Z, Index
Author : Edward L. Melnick,Brian Everitt
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category : Mathematical statistics
Total pages :1954
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Toxicogenomics in Predictive Carcinogenicity

Toxicogenomics in Predictive Carcinogenicity
Author : Michael D. Waters,Russell S. Thomas
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release Date : 2016-06-10
Category : Medical
Total pages :524
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Describes toxicogenomics methods in predictive carcinogenicity testing and cancer risk assessment. Addresses the use of stem cells and bioinformatics in toxicogenomics. For postgraduates, academics and industrialists.

Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches

Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches
Author : Jeanne Mager Stellman
Publisher : International Labour Organization
Release Date : 1998
Category : Electronic books
Total pages :1174
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Revised and expanded, this edition provides comprehensive coverage of occupational health and safety. A new CD-ROM version is available which provides the benefits of computer-assisted search capabilities.

Environmental Carcinogenesis

Environmental Carcinogenesis
Author : Piet Emmelot,E. Kriek
Publisher : North Holland
Release Date : 1979
Category : Carcinogenesis
Total pages :401
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Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

Alternatives to Laboratory Animals
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2009
Category : Biological models
Total pages :129
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Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology

Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology
Author : Franz-Xaver Reichl,Leonard Ritter
Publisher : Thieme
Release Date : 2010-12-15
Category : Medical
Total pages :360
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The Illustrated Handbook of Toxicology is an impressive introduction to the complex field of toxicology. It also serves as a hands-on guide to various poison treatments and offers supplemental public health information.Each two-page unit features concise text on the left complemented by full-color illustrations on the opposing page. The expert author distinguishes harmful toxic substances and catalogues their specific effects on the human body, plants, animals, and the surrounding environment. The handbook also addresses cutting-edge topics, including biological warfare, modern toxicological methods, and threshold values.Features: Succinct, user-friendly organization allows readers to navigate the content with ease Over 500 detailed images and diagrams arranged on 150 full-color plates illustrate exposures and toxicological effects on humans, plants, and animals Well-researched, objective risk analysis on toxic exposures accompanies relevant images Extensive glossary of key toxicological terms provides readers with the accurate information they need to avoid dangerous confusion This is the ideal text for all medical students who want to supplement the toxicological information covered in their coursework, as well as for first responders to chemical accidents and poisonings.

Chromosomal Alterations

Chromosomal Alterations
Author : Günter Obe,Vijayalaxmi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-06-02
Category : Science
Total pages :515
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The book helps the reader to better understand cytogenetics and the intricacies of the methodology. The different methods of fluorescence in situ hybridization are discussed and the results achieved are presented. The book provides a comprehensive review of basic and applied aspects of cytogenetics and thus is of intense interest to all those interested in chromosomes and their alterations by different types of mutagens, including chemical mutagens and ionizing and nonionizing radiation, with special reference to electromagnetic fields.