November 27, 2020

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Tip Enhancement

Tip Enhancement
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2011-09-22
Category : Science
Total pages :338
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This book discusses the recent advances in the area of near-field Raman scattering, mainly focusing on tip-enhanced and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Some of the key features covered here are the optical structuring and manipulations, single molecule sensitivity, analysis of single-walled carbon nanotubes, and analytic applications in chemistry, biology and material sciences. This book also discusses the plasmonic materials for better enhancement, and optical antennas. Further, near-field microscopy based on second harmonic generation is also discussed. Chapters have been written by some of the leading scientists in this field, who present some of their recent work in this field. ·Near-field Raman scattering ·Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy ·Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy ·Nano-photonics ·Nanoanalysis of Physical, chemical and biological materials beyond the diffraction limits ·Single molecule detection

Interpreting High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Images

Interpreting High-Resolution Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Images
Author : Pengchong Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category :
Total pages :129
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Raman spectroscopy is one of the fundamental techniques in chemical characterization. It measures the amount of photons and their frequency shifts scattered by the molecule under a given laser beam. The frequency shifts originate from the molecule's vibrations, which are determined by its microscopic structure. Thus, a Raman spectrum is often regarded as the molecule's "fingerprint". When the molecule is placed on a noble metal surface with some curvature, the Raman signals are greatly enhanced by the plasmonic near field at the surface. This technique is called "surface- enhanced Raman spectroscopy", or SERS. Because of the significantly improved sensitivity relative to regular Raman scattering, SERS has grown into a widely popular tool for chemical research and practical applications. Moreover, the molecule-metal interaction that lies in the center of the mechanism of SERS has been a hot topic of fundamental research since its discovery and has led to many variants in the development of spectroscopic techniques. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) integrates the scanning probe microscopy and SERS. Similar to SERS, the enhancement of Raman scattering in TERS benefits from the inhomogeneous near field induced by the plasmonic resonance of the noble metal nanostructure. However, the TERS spectrum of a molecule is often found different than SERS, and it changes with the tip position. The combination of the chemical sensitivity and the spatial resolution makes TERS a promising technique for microscopic characterization. A comprehensive demonstration of these unique features is TERS imaging. A TERS image is a two-dimensional map of the Raman intensity at a certain frequency varying with the scanning tip. It exhibits a sub-nanometer resolution and is specific to the corresponding vibrational mode. TERS imaging is considered as a visualization of molecular vibrations and sets stage for a new way of understanding molecules. Therefore, it is necessary to develop theoretical interpretation of TERS images and their connections to the underlying molecular vibration. However, interpreting TERS images is challenging as the brightspot pattern does not always strictly align with the vibrating atoms and the signals are very sensitive to experimental conditions. In this dissertation, three major aspects of TERS theory are explored: the effect of the plasmonic near field electromagnetic mechanism), the plasmonic resonance inside a subnanometer cavity (gap plasmonics), and the quantum mechanical interactions between the molecule and the substrate (the chemical mechanism). In particular, the critical conditions of the near field to achieve atomic resolution are found. It is also illustrated that the locally integrated Raman polarizability density is the sub-molecular property probed by the confined near field in TERS. It provides an intuitive description of the TERS imaging mechanism, which is usually hidden in the self-consistent cycles of conventional calculations using the time-dependent density functional theory. The distinct feature of TERS is largely ascribed to the unique plasmonic properties of a sub-nanometer junction consisting of a flat metal substrate and an atomically sharp tip. At this length scale, atomistic electrodynamics is adopted to describe the nanostructure because it captures the microscopic structure and at the same time retains the efficiency of a classical model.To study the charge-transfer plasmon due to quantum tunneling, a Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to distinguish the plasmonic resonances within and across the coupled nanoparticles. Furthermore, this dissertation presents the development of a new theoretical method to better describe the substrate-molecule coupling, namely, exact frozen density embedding. The method to obtain the response properties of a molecule is derived based on the exact frozen density embedding within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. Finally, a polarizable frozen density embedding method is developed to include the polarization effect due to the presence of a metal nanoparticle. The development of these theoretical tools is potentially applicable to the studies of the electronic structures of a TERS system.

Expanding Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Expanding Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Author : Jacob D. Scherger
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Nanotechnology
Total pages :177
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Through the use of alternative probe materials, specifically titanium nitride, the capabilities of Tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) have been expanded to new environments, and through the study of the blinking phenomenon a greater understanding of its capabilities has been achieved. TERS is a powerful analytical technique for measuring surfaces on the nanoscale. It is capable of simultaneously providing well resolved topographical and chemical information from a sample surface, and has been previously shown to be capable of single molecule sensitivity. It is shown here that blinking of individual species of a miscible blend can be observed even in non-resonant, non-dilute polymer systems. This result affirms thermal diffusion as the primary diffusive mechanism driving blinking, allows us to infer the size of highly enhancing areas within a larger plasmonic structure, and acts as a potential stepping stone towards more quantitative measurements with more well defined probes. Improving upon the versatility of the technique, protected titanium nitride coated probes are demonstrated to not only provide enhancement, but to act as robust probes in aqueous environments and to allow for the plasmon resonance wavelength to be tuned based on deposition conditions. These two properties serve to expand the applicability of TERS; extending potential for in-situ biological measurements and allowing for use in a wider variety of laboratory conditions.

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering
Author : Katrin Kneipp,Martin Moskovits,Harald Kneipp
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2006-06-21
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :466
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Almost 30 years after the first reports on surface-enhanced Raman signals, the phenomenon of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is now well established. SERS gained particular interest after single-molecule Raman spectroscopy had been demonstrated. This book summarizes and discusses present theoretical approaches that explain the phenomenon of SERS and reports on new and exciting experiments and applications of the fascinating spectroscopic effect.

Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Principles of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Author : Eric Le Ru,Pablo Etchegoin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2008-11-17
Category : Science
Total pages :688
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SERS was discovered in the 1970s and has since grown enormously in breadth, depth, and understanding. One of the major characteristics of SERS is its interdisciplinary nature: it lies at the boundary between physics, chemistry, colloid science, plasmonics, nanotechnology, and biology. By their very nature, it is impossible to find a textbook that will summarize the principles needed for SERS of these rather dissimilar and disconnected topics. Although a basic understanding of these topics is necessary for research projects in SERS with all its many aspects and applications, they are seldom touched upon as a coherent unit during most undergraduate studies in physics or chemistry. This book intends to fill this existing gap in the literature. It provides an overview of the underlying principles of SERS, from the fundamental understanding of the effect to its potential applications. It is aimed primarily at newcomers to the field, graduate students, researchers or scientists, attracted by the many applications of SERS and plasmonics or its basic science. The emphasis is on concepts and background material for SERS, such as Raman spectroscopy, the physics of plasmons, or colloid science, all of them introduced within the context of SERS, and from where the more specialized literature can be followed. Represents one of very few books fully dedicated to the topic of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) Gives a comprehensive summary of the underlying physical concepts around SERS Provides a detailed analysis of plasmons and plasmonics

Nano-optics and Near-field Optical Microscopy

Nano-optics and Near-field Optical Microscopy
Author : Anatoly V. Zayats,David Richards (Prof.)
Publisher : Artech House
Release Date : 2009
Category : Electronic books
Total pages :361
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This groundbreaking book focuses on near-field microscopy which has opened up optical processes at the nanoscale for direct inspection. Further, it explores the emerging area of nano-optics which promises to make possible optical microscopy with true nanometer resolution. This frontline resource helps you achieve high resolution optical imaging of biological species and functional materials. You also find guidance in the imaging of optical device operation and new nanophotonics functionalities.

Oxford Handbook of Nanoscience and Technology

Oxford Handbook of Nanoscience and Technology
Author : A.V. Narlikar,Y.Y. Fu
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date : 2010-02-11
Category : Science
Total pages :960
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These three volumes are intended to shape the field of nanoscience and technology and will serve as an essential point of reference for cutting-edge research in the field.

Nanoscale Spectroscopy with Applications

Nanoscale Spectroscopy with Applications
Author : Sarhan M. Musa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2018-10-08
Category : Science
Total pages :578
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This book introduces the key concepts of nanoscale spectroscopy methods used in nanotechnologies in a manner that is easily digestible for a beginner in the field. It discusses future applications of nanotechnologies in technical industries. It also covers new developments and interdisciplinary research in engineering, science, and medicine. An overview of nanoscale spectroscopy for nanotechnologies, the book describes the technologies with an emphasis on how they work and on their key benefits. It also serves as a reference for veterans in the field.

Handbook of Spectroscopy

Handbook of Spectroscopy
Author : G¿nter Gauglitz,David S. Moore
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-05-05
Category : Science
Total pages :1993
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This second, thoroughly revised, updated and enlarged edition provides a straightforward introduction to spectroscopy, showing what it can do and how it does it, together with a clear, integrated and objective account of the wealth of information that may be derived from spectra. It also features new chapters on spectroscopy in nano-dimensions, nano-optics, and polymer analysis. Clearly structured into sixteen sections, it covers everything from spectroscopy in nanodimensions to medicinal applications, spanning a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the physical processes involved, from nuclear phenomena to molecular rotation processes. In addition, data tables provide a comparison of different methods in a standardized form, allowing readers to save valuable time in the decision process by avoiding wrong turns, and also help in selecting the instrumentation and performing the experiments. These four volumes are a must-have companion for daily use in every lab.

Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology

Comprehensive Nanoscience and Technology
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2010-10-29
Category : Science
Total pages :2774
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From the Introduction: Nanotechnology and its underpinning sciences are progressing with unprecedented rapidity. With technical advances in a variety of nanoscale fabrication and manipulation technologies, the whole topical area is maturing into a vibrant field that is generating new scientific research and a burgeoning range of commercial applications, with an annual market already at the trillion dollar threshold. The means of fabricating and controlling matter on the nanoscale afford striking and unprecedented opportunities to exploit a variety of exotic phenomena such as quantum, nanophotonic and nanoelectromechanical effects. Moreover, researchers are elucidating new perspectives on the electronic and optical properties of matter because of the way that nanoscale materials bridge the disparate theories describing molecules and bulk matter. Surface phenomena also gain a greatly increased significance; even the well-known link between chemical reactivity and surface-to-volume ratio becomes a major determinant of physical properties, when it operates over nanoscale dimensions. Against this background, this comprehensive work is designed to address the need for a dynamic, authoritative and readily accessible source of information, capturing the full breadth of the subject. Its six volumes, covering a broad spectrum of disciplines including material sciences, chemistry, physics and life sciences, have been written and edited by an outstanding team of international experts. Addressing an extensive, cross-disciplinary audience, each chapter aims to cover key developments in a scholarly, readable and critical style, providing an indispensible first point of entry to the literature for scientists and technologists from interdisciplinary fields. The work focuses on the major classes of nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structure and applications, reviewing nanomaterials and their respective technologies in well-structured and comprehensive articles with extensive cross-references. It has been a constant surprise and delight to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in nanoscience and technology, so many highly esteemed authors willing to contribute. Sharing our anticipation of a major addition to the literature, they have also captured the excitement of the field itself in each carefully crafted chapter. Along with our painstaking and meticulous volume editors, full credit for the success of this enterprise must go to these individuals, together with our thanks for (largely) adhering to the given deadlines. Lastly, we record our sincere thanks and appreciation for the skills and professionalism of the numerous Elsevier staff who have been involved in this project, notably Fiona Geraghty, Megan Palmer and Greg Harris, and especially Donna De Weerd-Wilson who has steered it through from its inception. We have greatly enjoyed working with them all, as we have with each other.

Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon Nanotubes
Author : Ado Jorio,Gene Dresselhaus,Mildred S. Dresselhaus
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2007-12-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :720
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Building on the success of its predecessor, Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications, this second volume focuses on those areas that have grown rapidly in the past few years. Contributing authors reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the book and are all leaders in their particular areas of research. Among the many topics they cover are graphene and other carbon-like and tube-like materials, which are likely to affect and influence developments in nanotubes within the next five years. Extensive use of illustrations enables you to better understand and visualize key concepts and processes.

Spectroelectrochemistry

Spectroelectrochemistry
Author : Robert J. Gale
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 1988-07-31
Category : Gardening
Total pages :450
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The intention of this monograph has been to assimilate key practical and theoretical aspects of those spectroelectrochemical techniques likely to become routine aids to electrochemical research and analysis. Many new methods for interphasial studies have been and are being developed. Accordingly, this book is restricted in scope primarily to in situ methods for studying metal! electrolyte or semiconductor! electrolyte systems; moreover, it is far from inclusive of the spectroelectrochemical techniques that have been devised. However, it is hoped that the practical descriptions provided are sufficiently explicit to encourage and enable the newcomer to establish the experimental facilities needed for a particular problem. The chapters in this text have been written by international authorities in their particular specialties. Each chapter is broadly organized to review the origins and historical background of the field, to provide sufficiently detailed theory for graduate student comprehension, to describe the practical design and experimental methodology, and to detail some representative application examples. Since publication of Volume 9 of the Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering series (1973), a volume devoted specifically to spectroelectrochemistry, there has been unabated growth of these fields. A number of international symposia-such as those held at Snowmass, Colorado, in 1978, the proceedings of which were published by North-Holland (1980); at Logan, Utah in 1982, published by Elsevier (1983); or at the Fritz Haber Institute in 1986-have served as forums for the discussion of nontraditional methods to study interphases and as means for the dissemination of a diversity of specialist research papers.

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging

Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging
Author : Reiner Salzer,Heinz W. Siesler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-08-07
Category : Science
Total pages :656
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This second edition of the successful ready reference is updated and revised with approximately 30% new content to reflect the numerous instrumental developments and improvements, as well as the significant expansion of this rapidly developing field. For example, the combination of IR imaging with AFM has enhanced the achievable lateral resolution by an order of magnitude down to a few hundred nanometers, thus launching a multiplicity of new applications in material science. Furthermore, Raman and IR spectroscopic imaging have become key technologies for the life sciences and today contribute tremendously to a better and more detailed understanding of numerous biological and medical research topics. The topical structure of this new edition is now subdivided into four parts. The first treats the fundamentals of the instrumentation for infrared and Raman imaging and mapping and an overview on the chemometric tools for image analysis. The second part describes a wide varie-ty of applications ranging from biomedical via food, agriculture and plants to polymers and pharmaceuticals. This is followed by a description of imaging techniques operating beyond the diffraction limit, while the final part covers special methodical developments and their utility in specific fields. With its many valuable practical tips, this is a must-have overview for researchers in academic and industrial laboratories wishing to obtain reliable results with this method.

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Dekker Encyclopedia of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Author : James A. Schwarz,Cristian I. Contescu,Karol Putyera
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2004
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :4014
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Proceedings of the 240 Conference

Proceedings of the 240 Conference
Author : Aaron R. Dinner
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2014-11-06
Category : Science
Total pages :368
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Based on the '240' Conference held at the University of Chicagoin September of 2012, this special volume of The Advances inChemical Physics series celebrates scientific researchcontributions and careers of R. Stephen Berry, Stuart A. Rice andJoshua Jortner. In addition to continuing the chemicalphysics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluationsof advances in the discipline, Volume 157 exploresthe following topics: The Emergence and Breakdown of Complexity Dynamics at Extremes Grand Questions Regarding Biomolecular Homochirality in the Originand Evolution of Life The book: celebrates the scientific research contributions andcareers of R. Stephen Berry, Stuart A. Rice and Joshua Jortner contributes to the only series available that presents thecutting edge of research in chemical physics includes contributions from experts in this field ofresearch structured with an editorial framework that makes the book anexcellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physicalchemistry or chemical physics