January 15, 2021

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Toxicity of Building Materials

Toxicity of Building Materials
Author : Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,S Jalali,Aleksandra Fucic
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2012-08-13
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :512
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From long-standing worries regarding the use of lead and asbestos to recent research into carcinogenic issues related to the use of plastics in construction, there is growing concern regarding the potential toxic effects of building materials on health. Toxicity of building materials provides an essential guide to this important problem and its solutions. Beginning with an overview of the material types and potential health hazards presented by building materials, the book goes on to consider key plastic materials. Materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds, are then explored in depth, before a review of wood preservatives and mineral fibre-based building materials. Issues related to the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning are the focus of subsequent chapters, followed by discussion of the range of heavy metals, materials prone to mould growth, and antimicrobials. Finally, Toxicity of building materials concludes by considering the potential hazards posed by waste based/recycled building materials, and the toxicity of nanoparticles. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Toxicity of building materials is an invaluable tool for all civil engineers, materials researchers, scientists and educators working in the field of building materials. Provides an essential guide to the potential toxic effects of building materials on health Comprehensively examines materials responsible for formaldehyde and volatile organic compound emissions, as well as semi-volatile organic compounds Later chapters focus on issues surrounding the use of radioactive materials and materials that release toxic fumes during burning

Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials

Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials
Author : Fernando Pacheco Torgal,Said Jalali
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-07-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :247
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Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials provides essential reading about materials for the construction industry in the twenty-first century. It covers the latest findings in the field, especially the toxicity aspects, embodied energy, construction and demolition wastes, the use of wastes in concrete, masonry units, materials reinforced with vegetable fibres, earth construction, the durability aspects, and also the importance of nanotechnology to the development of more environmentally-friendly materials. Based on more than nine hundred references, Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials is of fundamental importance to academics, engineers and architects who are dedicated to the creation of a greener and more holistic construction industry.

Building Materials

Building Materials
Author : Kathleen Hess-Kosa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2017-04-07
Category : Science
Total pages :324
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The construction industry is bombarded with ever-changing building materials—components of which are more and more difficult, if not impossible, to identify. Building material emissions have been implicated as a major source of indoor air pollution, and toxic gases, often unidentified, are generated in building fires. Building Materials: Product Emission and Combustion Health Hazards undertakes the task of identifying building materials emission and combustion health hazards. This practical guide introduces the complex world of polymers commonly used in building materials along with plasticizers and additives that are not regulated by OSHA. It also explores the topic of building materials as they relate to function and their emissions/combustion products along with thermal decomposition and combustion products as they relate to fire first responders. Engaging environmental professionals, construction management firms, architects, first respondents, and students, this valuable reference delivers a comprehensive spectrum of knowledge needed to face the challenges of managing building materials in the twenty-first century. Awareness is the first line of defense!

Fire Toxicity

Fire Toxicity
Author : A A Stec,T R Hull
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2010-03-12
Category : Medical
Total pages :728
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Toxic fire effluents are responsible for the majority of fire deaths, and an increasing large majority of fire injuries, driven by the widespread and increasing use of synthetic polymers. Fire safety has focused on preventing ignition and reducing flame spread through reducing the rate of heat release, while neglecting the important issue of fire toxicity. This is the first reference work on fire toxicity and the only scientific publication on the subject in the last 15 years. Assessment of toxic effects of fires is increasingly being recognised as a key factor in the assessment of fire hazards. This book raises important issues including the types of toxic effluents that different fires produce, their physiological effects, methods for generation and assessment of fire toxicity, current and proposed regulations and approaches to modelling the toxic impact of fires. The contributors to Fire toxicity represent an international team of the leading experts in each aspect of this challenging and important field. This book provides an important reference work for professionals in the fire community, including fire fighters, fire investigators, regulators, fire safety engineers, and formulators of fire-safe materials. It will also prove invaluable to researchers in academia and industry. Investigates the controversial subject of toxic effluents as the cause of the majority of fire deaths and injuries Describes the different types of toxic effluents and the specific fires that they produce, their physiological effects and methods for generation Provides an overview of national and international fire safety regulations including current and proposed regulations such as a standardized framework for prediction of fire gas toxicity

Ecology of Building Materials

Ecology of Building Materials
Author : Bjørn Berge
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2007-08-22
Category : Architecture
Total pages :480
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As both a practising architect and a researcher, Berge introduces us authoritatively to issues such as using raw materials from renewable sources, and the possibilities of designing and manufacturing reusable building materials. The alternatives to modern building materials are outlined and discussed from an ecological perspective. In a time when environmental labelling is becoming increasingly popular and the producers of building materials are urged to be more environmentally aware, it is obviously important that we are acquainted with these alternatives. Important issues discussed in this book include: Can raw materials from non-renewable sources be replaced with raw materials from widely available or non-depletable sources? Can environmentally friendly chemicals replace environmentally damaging ones? Can the make-up of building materials be altered so that individual components can be re-used? A clear interpretation of complicated Life Cycle Analysis issues and vital guidance are given to specifiers confronted with a plethora of manufacturers' environmental claims.

Combustion Toxicology

Combustion Toxicology
Author : Shayne C. Gad,Harold L. Kaplan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1990-10-02
Category : Medical
Total pages :224
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Combustion toxicology is a recent, applied science, the ultimate purpose of which is to reduce casualties from smoke inhalation. The present volume attempts an unbiased presentation of the state of the field. The authors have identified the misconceptions and unsupported conclusions in the literature, differentiating between fact and hypothesis and present the reader with an account of what is really known about the toxicity of smoke produced by materials. They also recommend an approach to evaluating the toxicity of combustion products.

Nanotechnology in Eco-Efficient Construction

Nanotechnology in Eco-Efficient Construction
Author : Fernando Pacheco-Torgal,M V Diamanti,A Nazari,C Goran-Granqvist
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2013-04-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :458
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As the environmental impact of existing construction and building materials comes under increasing scrutiny, the search for more eco-efficient solutions has intensified. Nanotechnology offers great potential in this area and is already being widely used to great success. Nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction is an authoritative guide to the role of nanotechnology in the development of eco-efficient construction materials and sustainable construction. Following an introduction to the use of nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction materials, part one considers such infrastructural applications as nanoengineered cement-based materials, nanoparticles for high-performance and self-sensing concrete, and the use of nanotechnology to improve the bulk and surface properties of steel for structural applications. Nanoclay-modified asphalt mixtures and safety issues relating to nanomaterials for construction applications are also reviewed before part two goes on to discuss applications for building energy efficiency. Topics explored include thin films and nanostructured coatings, switchable glazing technology and third generation photovoltaic (PV) cells, high-performance thermal insulation materials, and silica nanogel for energy-efficient windows. Finally, photocatalytic applications are the focus of part three, which investigates nanoparticles for pollution control, self-cleaning and photosterilisation, and the role of nanotechnology in manufacturing paints and purifying water for eco-efficient buildings. Nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction is a technical guide for all those involved in the design, production and application of eco-efficient construction materials, including civil engineers, materials scientists, researchers and architects within any field of nanotechnology, eco-efficient materials or the construction industry. Provides an authoritative guide to the role of nanotechnology in the development of eco-efficient construction materials and sustainable construction Examines the use of nanotechnology in eco-efficient construction materials Considers a range of important infrastructural applications, before discussing applications for building energy efficiency

Building Materials, Health and Indoor Air Quality

Building Materials, Health and Indoor Air Quality
Author : Tom Woolley
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date : 2016-10-04
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :214
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The impact of building materials and construction methods on the health and wellbeing of occupants is often underestimated. This book is an essential guide to understanding and avoiding hazardous materials and poor air quality in buildings. The author covers a range of issues beginning with an explanation of how buildings work and how this influences the health of occupants and users. The text covers: Ventilation, air conditioning and indoor air quality Damp and mould Asthma and respiratory problems Cancer and endocrine disorders Radiation and radon Hazardous building materials used in construction Indoor air quality and emissions Ecological alternatives and approaches and remedies for ‘sick’ buildings The book also guides the reader through the confusing world of regulations, EU and international guidelines and certifications, and provides a critical analysis of different theories of healthy buildings and philosophies. Written in a clear and accessible style, this book provides indispensable advice and information to anyone wishing to better understand healthy buildings and materials. It is essential reading for architects, surveyors, public health professionals, facilities managers and environmentalists.

New Microbiotests for Routine Toxicity Screening and Biomonitoring

New Microbiotests for Routine Toxicity Screening and Biomonitoring
Author : Guido Persoone,Colin Janssen,Wim De Coen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2000-05-31
Category : Medical
Total pages :550
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This special volume is the output of the `International Symposium on New Microbiotests for Routine Toxicity Screening and Biomonitoring - Development - Applications - Cost-effectiveness' which was organized in June 1998 in Brno, Czech Republic. It comprises 60 original and peer-reviewed papers selected from over 100 oral and poster presentations given during this meeting by scientists from many countries worldwide. Features: Latest overview and state of the art of microscale bioassays with special emphasis on their application in various domains of environmental contamination; Reviews on toxicity testing with microbiotests in a regulatory framework; Description and application of microbiotests with lethal and sublethal test criteria, and of their sensitivity in comparison with conventional bioassays; Detailed reports on investigations with small-scale toxicity tests on natural waters, wastes, contaminated air, soils and sediments, specific chemicals and biotoxins; Application of new microbiotests for mutagenicity and genotoxicity screening; Critical evaluation of the potential of specific microbiotests as alternatives to conventional toxicity tests.

Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions, Fires, and Toxic Releases

Guidelines for Evaluating Process Plant Buildings for External Explosions, Fires, and Toxic Releases
Author : CCPS (Center for Chemical Process Safety)
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2012-11-07
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :232
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Siting of permanent and temporary buildings in process areas requires careful consideration of potential effects of explosions and fires arising from accidental release of flammable materials. This book, which updates the 1996 edition, provides a single-source reference that explains the American Petroleum Institute (API) permanent (752) and temporary (753) building recommended practices and details how to implement them. New coverage on toxicity and updated standards are also highlighted. Practical and easy-to-use, this reliable guide is a must-have for implementing safe building practices.

Publications

Publications
Author : United States. National Bureau of Standards
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1989
Category : Government publications
Total pages :129
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Fire Toxicity of Plastics

Fire Toxicity of Plastics
Author : Rapra Technology Limited
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release Date : 1989
Category : Combustion gases
Total pages :64
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Advances in Combustion Toxicology

Advances in Combustion Toxicology
Author : Gordon E. Hartzell
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 1992-03-18
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :378
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This book describes advances in the thinking of experts in the field of combustion toxicology through 1991. It emphasizes contributions due to the efforts of the working groups of ISO/TCQ2/SC3, along with presentation of the most up-to-date strategy for minimizing the risk of toxic hazards in fires.

Publications of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ... Catalog

Publications of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ... Catalog
Author : National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2021
Category :
Total pages :129
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Flammability Testing of Materials Used in Construction, Transport and Mining

Flammability Testing of Materials Used in Construction, Transport and Mining
Author : Vivek B. Apte
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release Date : 2006-01-31
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :480
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Engineers need to be able to test the flammability of the materials they use in buildings and other structures. However, the range of test procedures and regulations in this important area is often confusing. Flammability testing of materials used in construction, transport and mining provides an authoritative guide to current best practice in ensuring safe design. The book begins by defining flammability and the main types of test available. Building on this foundation, a group of chapters then reviews tests for key materials used in buildings and their contents. There are chapters on wood, external cladding and sandwich panels as well as the flammability of walls and ceilings. Tests for furniture fabrics, cables and electrical appliances are also reviewed. A final group of chapters discusses other types of test, particularly in the transport sector, including chapters on flammability testing for railway passenger cars, aircraft, road and rail tunnels. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Flammability testing of materials used in construction, transport and mining is a standard reference for civil and transport engineers in particular. An authoritative guide to best practice in ensuring safe design Defines flammability and the main types of test available A vital reference source for civil and transport engineers