November 29, 2020

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Toxoplasma Gondii

Toxoplasma Gondii
Author : Louis M. Weiss,Kami Kim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release Date : 2013-08-10
Category : Science
Total pages :1160
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This 2e of Toxoplasma gondii reflects the significant advances in the field in the last 5 years, including new information on the genomics, epigenomics and proteomics of T. gondii as well as a new understanding of the population biology and genetic diversity of this organism. T. gondii remains the best model system for studying the entire Apicomplexa group of protozoans, which includes Malaria, making this new edition essential for a broad group of researchers and scientists. Toxoplasmosis is caused by a one-celled protozoan parasite known as T. gondii. The infection produces a wide range of clinical syndromes in humans, land and sea mammals, and various bird species. Most humans contract toxoplasmosis by eating contaminated, raw or undercooked meat (particularly pork), vegetables, or milk products; by coming into contact with the T. gondii eggs from cat feces; or by drinking contaminated water. The parasite damages the ocular and central nervous systems, causing behavioral and personality alterations as well as fatal necrotizing encephalitis. It is especially dangerous for the fetus of an infected pregnant woman and for individuals with compromised immune systems, such as HIV-infected patients. Completely updated, the 2e presents recent advances driven by new information on the genetics and genomics of the pathogen Provides the latest information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis Offers a single-source reference for a wide range of scientists and physicians working with this pathogen, including parasitologists, cell and molecular biologists, veterinarians, neuroscientists, physicians, and food scientists

Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii
Author : Christopher J. Tonkin
Publisher : Humana
Release Date : 2020-12-07
Category : Medical
Total pages :470
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This volume covers a diverse collection of protocols currently being used by the Toxoplasma research community, and also looks at innovative methods that are pushing the boundaries of possibilities. Chapters in this book discuss topics such as isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii strains; assessing rhoptry secretion in T. gondii; plate-based quantification of stimulated Toxoplasma egress; methods to study ocular toxoplasmosis; and metabolic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Toxoplasma gondii: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for students or groups starting off in the field, as well as laboratories interested in implementing the latest techniques described in the book.

Toxoplasma gondii

Toxoplasma gondii
Author : Uwe Gross
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2012-12-06
Category : Medical
Total pages :276
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For years, toxoplasmosis has been known as disease mostly affecting newborns. Since immunocompromised patients (AIDS) present a high risk of reactivation of chronic toxoplasmosis this parasitic disease has gained increasing interest. Besides presenting clinical and therapeutical concepts, this volume provides current knowledge about genetics and immunology of T. gondii and the interaction with its 'host'. Since in vivo and in vitro models of toxoplasmosis exist, and genetic manipulation has become possible, this protozoan parasite has recently been accepted as a model for understanding the pathogenesis and persistance of other intracellular parasites. The articles of the book compromise both reviewing current concepts and reporting on yet unpublished results of leading scientists in this field.

Toxoplasma Gondii Host Interactions: A Story of Immune Attack and Parasite Counterattack

Toxoplasma Gondii Host Interactions: A Story of Immune Attack and Parasite Counterattack
Author : Jeroen P. J. Saeij,Eva Frickel,Kirk Jensen,Nicolas Blanchard
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release Date : 2020-08-10
Category :
Total pages :129
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Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals, including an estimated ~30% of humans. It can cause severe disease in immune-suppressed individuals and in fetuses as well as blinding chorioretinitis in adults and children. Toxoplasma-innate immune system interactions determine early parasite control and activation of the adaptive immune system by the host and are therefore critical in determining host survival during the acute phase of infection. However, induction of an exaggerated inflammatory response can also lead to pathology. Only the chronic tissue cyst form of Toxoplasma is orally infectious. It is therefore critical for the parasite’s survival during the chronic phase to escape immune responses at this stage as well. Toxoplasma exists as genetically divergent strains mostly depending on geography, with the most strain diversity being found in South America. The key to Toxoplasma’s successful co-option of the host are proteins secreted from its rhoptry and dense granule secretory organelles. Rhoptry proteins (ROPs) are secreted into the host cell cytoplasm upon invasion while dense granule proteins (GRAs) are secreted once the parasite establishes itself in its parasitophorous vacuole (PV). GRAs can localize to the PV, the PV membrane, or are secreted beyond the PVM into the host cytoplasm. Many ROPs and GRAs are involved in modulating host cell signaling pathways and evasion of host immune responses and play important roles in Toxoplasma virulence. Polymorphisms in Toxoplasma’s ROPs and GRAs, likely determine how well these effectors bind to the divergent substrates in different host species, which can explain Toxoplasma strain differences in virulence in a particular host species. By studying Toxoplasma we have not only started to unravel how the parasite modulates immune responses to enhance its survival, replication, and transmission but we have also learned a lot about the immune system. Many unique mechanisms of immunity have indeed been defined using Toxoplasma and this parasite has aided our understanding of tissue-specific immune responses in the brain and intestine. This Research Topic will give a comprehensive overview of Toxoplasma-host immune response interactions. Most Toxoplasma virulence determinants to date have been established in murine systems and it is unclear how the parasite interacts with other intermediate hosts and humans. In addition, the interactions of Toxoplasma with some of the most relevant cell types during infection, including dendritic cells, neurons, intestinal epithelial cells or vascular endothelial cells, remain poorly understood.

Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Toxoplasma Gondii

Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Toxoplasma Gondii
Author : Peter Lydyard,Michael Cole,John Holton,Will Irving,Nino Porakishvili,Pradhib Venkatesan,Kate Ward
Publisher : Garland Science
Release Date : 2009-12-01
Category : Medical
Total pages :608
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Case Studies in Infectious Disease: Toxoplasma gondii presents the natural history of this infection from point of entry of the pathogen through pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. A set of core questions explores the nature, causation, host response, manifestations, and management of this infectious process. This case also includes summary bullet points, questions and answers, and references.

Toxoplasma Gondii Co-opts Host Immune Signaling by Secretion of a Polymorphic Tyrosine Kinase, ROP16

Toxoplasma Gondii Co-opts Host Immune Signaling by Secretion of a Polymorphic Tyrosine Kinase, ROP16
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Stanford University
Release Date : 2010
Category :
Total pages :129
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Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite of the Apicomplexan phylum that is able to infect nearly all warm-blooded vertebrates. This capability for survival in a variety of host niches is reflected in the diversification of Toxoplasma strains. Strains differ dramatically in their interaction with hosts, and a fruitful approach towards understanding the molecular underpinnings of disease has been to identify and characterize drivers of strain-specific differences in host response. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to Toxoplasma gondii and its ability to modulate host immunity, with special attention given to what is known about the mechanisms behind strain-specific phenotypes and the role of one particular player, ROP16. Chapter 2 describes experiments demonstrating that Toxoplasma secretes a polymorphic tyrosine kinase, ROP16, that can directly phosphorylate host STAT6. These experiments made use of a targeted disruption of the ROP16 locus in Type I parasites to identify ROP16-dependent signaling pathways, and used biochemical approaches to dissect the mechanism by which ROP16 is able to induce rapid STAT6 activation. Chapter 3 describes work demonstrating that ROP16 activation of STAT6 directs murine macrophage polarization towards an alternatively activated (M2) phenotype. In Chapter 4, the avian host response to Toxoplasma is examined to determine whether strain-specific differences in host response might be inverted in non-mammalian hosts. We show that strain-specific transcriptional host response, as well as transcriptional host response modulated by ROP16, appears very similar in chickens as in mice and humans. This suggests that variance between mammalian and avian host species in general may not be the source of selective pressure for the success of these common strains, or of ROP16's variability. Chapter 5 concludes with a discussion of future directions for further characterization of ROP16's role in modulating host response. We show that ROP16 interacts with host chromatin and suggest that investigation of ROP16's function in the host nucleus might yield further molecular insights as to how Toxoplasma is able to co-opt host cells and influence the course of infection.

Congenital Toxoplasmosis: In Vivo Impact of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Myogenesis and Neurogenesis

Congenital Toxoplasmosis: In Vivo Impact of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on Myogenesis and Neurogenesis
Author : Alessandra F. Gomes
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2017
Category : Medicine
Total pages :129
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Congenital toxoplasmosis (TC) from Toxoplasma gondii positive mother to child transmission results in fetal death, abortion, or infantile neurologic and neurocognitive deficits as well as chorioretinitis. This study aims to analyze the morphological changes in brain and skeletal muscle cells of Swiss mouse embryos during experimental congenital toxoplasmosis. Swiss mice, before mating, were gavage inoculation infected with approximately 25 or 50 cysts of ME-49 strain T. gondii. Eighteen day postcoitus maternal and embryonic muscle and brain samples were collected and processed for histopathological analysis. The muscle tissue from embryos of infected mothers, in comparison with healthy muscle myofibers, exhibited discontinuous and shorter myofibrils, more interfibrillar space and immature cells with fewer stained and poorly defined striated profiles. These in vivo findings might be related to an adhesion protein decrease, observed in vitro, where myogenesis was completely affected during Toxoplasma infection. The neurogenesis was severely affected with irregularly arranged cells, reduced cell density, and a significant intercellular space increase. The brain tissue presented ischemia, cell death, necrosis, and thrombi, increasing according to the degree of the acute infection, which compromised the neurogenesis, thereby justifying brain size decrease in these embryos.

The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in cats and rodents from the Morro Bay area, California

The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in cats and rodents from the Morro Bay area, California
Author : Haydee Ann Dabritz
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2006
Category :
Total pages :378
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Toxoplasma Gondii in Meat for Human Consumption - A Brief Review of the Most Described Strategies for Its Detection and Quantification

Toxoplasma Gondii in Meat for Human Consumption - A Brief Review of the Most Described Strategies for Its Detection and Quantification
Author : G.F. Dzib Paredes
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2016
Category : Technology
Total pages :129
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Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonotic disease widely distributed worldwide and is caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The definitive host of T. gondii is the domestic cat and the entire cat family, in which the sexual stages of the parasite develop. T. gondii can also infect a wide range of intermediate hosts, affecting most warm-blooded animals including humans. In humans, toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy individuals, but can develop lymphadenopathy and nonspecific symptomatology or even be fatal in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis and in immunocompromised patients. Transmission to humans is mainly through food, especially by eating undercooked meat or meat contaminated with tissue cysts. This has led to various public health organizations worldwide monitoring programs on T. gondii in animals intended for human consumption, especially in meat samples. One of the techniques employed in the laboratory is that based on the polymerase chain reaction and some of its variants, which have proven to be valuable tools for the detection of T. gondii in tissues for human consumption and many other types of biological samples. The development of different strategies for the molecular detection of T. gondii has led to the identification and quantification methodologies varying widely among laboratories. Therefore, this chapter reviews the main methods of extraction, purification, detection and quantification of T. gondii DNA in tissue samples from different species destined for human consumption.

Toxoplasma Gondii Oocysts in Water

Toxoplasma Gondii Oocysts in Water
Author : Katlyn Elle Wainwright
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category :
Total pages :308
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A Bibliography of Toxoplasmosis and Toxoplasma Gondii

A Bibliography of Toxoplasmosis and Toxoplasma Gondii
Author : Don Edgar Eyles,Jacob Karl Frenkel
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1953
Category : Toxoplasmosis
Total pages :47
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Isolation and Characterization of Toxoplasma Gondii Bradyzoite Development Mutants

Isolation and Characterization of Toxoplasma Gondii Bradyzoite Development Mutants
Author : Mary Patricia Juneau Craver
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2008
Category :
Total pages :164
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Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans

Toxoplasmosis of Animals and Humans
Author : J. P. Dubey
Publisher : CRC Press
Release Date : 2016-04-19
Category : Medical
Total pages :336
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Found worldwide from Alaska to Australasia, Toxoplasma gondii knows no geographic boundaries. The protozoan is the source of one of the most common parasitic infections in humans, livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, and has gained notoriety with its inclusion on the list of potential bioterrorism microbes. In the two decades since the publi

Latent Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Moderates the Association Between the C677T MTHFR Polymorphism and Cognitive Function in U.S. Adults

Latent Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Moderates the Association Between the C677T MTHFR Polymorphism and Cognitive Function in U.S. Adults
Author : Andrew Nathan Berrett
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2018
Category :
Total pages :72
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Sufficient blood concentrations of folate and the products from its metabolism are necessary for several cellular functions. The C677T MTHFR polymorphism, present in over half of the U.S. population, reduces the efficiency of folate metabolism and has been linked to the onset of multiple psychiatric disorders and cognitive decline. The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect the human brain and is associated with increased prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cognitive decline. In vitro studies have found that Toxoplasma gondii may salvage unmetabolized folate from host cells. Since the C677T MTHFR polymorphism and infection by Toxoplasma gondii both affect folate metabolism or availability, I used data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to test the hypothesis that laten toxoplasmosis and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism interact to predict worse cognitive functioning in U.S. adults. I found a statistically significant interaction effect between Toxoplasma gondii infection and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism in predicting performance on a test of reaction time. Subjects who were not infected with Toxoplasma gondii experienced declines in reaction time with the presence of one or two alleles for the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. However, this association was reversed for subjects who were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii. No interaction effects were observed when predicting performance on a test of processing speed or a test of short term memory. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the co-occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism may be associated with improved reaction time.

Effects of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on NK Cells and ILC1s

Effects of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection on NK Cells and ILC1s
Author : Eugene Park (Immunologist)
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2020
Category : Electronic dissertations
Total pages :95
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Natural killer cells and Type I innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are subsets of ILCs. In C57BL/6 mice, they share expression of the surface markers NK1. 1 and NKp46, and can produce the cytokine interferon-gamma. These similarities led to the initial classification of natural killer cells and Type I ILCs together under the category of Group 1 ILCs. However, more recent studies found that natural killer cells and ILC1s develop from distinct progenitor cells and utilize transcription factor in distinct manners. Whereas ILC1s require Tbet for their development and are Eomes-independent, natural killer cells require Tbet only for terminal maturation and are Eomes-dependent. As such, these populations were reclassified as separate ILC subsets. In the context of Toxoplasma gondii infection, we identified a new population that blurs these strict delineations. Our data suggest that T. gondii induces the development of ILC1-like cells that primarily result from the downregulation of Eomes and the upregulation of Tbet. We further validated these findings with epigenomic profiling and single-cell RNA sequencing.