January 25, 2021

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Underground Pipeline Corrosion

Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : Mark Orazem
Publisher : Elsevier
Release Date : 2014-02-17
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :340
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Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, numerical simulations for cathodic protection of pipelines, and use of corrosion inhibitors in managing corrosion in underground pipelines. The methods described in part two for detecting corrosion in underground pipelines include: magnetic flux leakage, close interval potential surveys (CIS/CIPS), Pearson surveys, in-line inspection, and use of both electrochemical and optical probes. While the emphasis is on pipelines transporting fossil fuels, the concepts apply as well to metallic pipes for delivery of water and other liquids. Underground Pipeline Corrosion is a comprehensive resource for corrosion, materials, chemical, petroleum, and civil engineers constructing or managing both onshore and offshore pipeline assets; professionals in steel and coating companies; and academic researchers and professors with an interest in corrosion and pipeline engineering. Reviews the causes and considers the detection and prevention of corrosion to underground pipes Addresses a lack of current, readily available information on the subject Case studies demonstrate how corrosion is managed in the underground pipeline industry

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : George B. McComb
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1967
Category : Corrosion and anti-corrosives
Total pages :129
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Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1959
Category : Corrosion and anti-corrosives
Total pages :129
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A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1961
Category : Electrolytic corrosion
Total pages :129
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A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1960
Category : Pipelines
Total pages :129
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A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion

A Collection of Papers on Underground Pipeline Corrosion
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1958
Category : Corrosion and anti-corrosives
Total pages :129
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Oil and Gas Pipelines

Oil and Gas Pipelines
Author : R. Winston Revie
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2015-04-20
Category : Science
Total pages :856
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A comprehensive and detailed reference guide on the integrity and safety of oil and gas pipelines, both onshore and offshore Covers a wide variety of topics, including design, pipe manufacture, pipeline welding, human factors, residual stresses, mechanical damage, fracture and corrosion, protection, inspection and monitoring, pipeline cleaning, direct assessment, repair, risk management, and abandonment Links modern and vintage practices to help integrity engineers better understand their system and apply up-to-date technology to older infrastructure Includes case histories with examples of solutions to complex problems related to pipeline integrity Includes chapters on stress-based and strain-based design, the latter being a novel type of design that has only recently been investigated by designer firms and regulators Provides information to help those who are responsible to establish procedures for ensuring pipeline integrity and safety

Guidelines for Predicting the Remaining Life of Underground Pipe Networks that are Subjected to the Combined Effects of External Corrosion and Internal Pressure

Guidelines for Predicting the Remaining Life of Underground Pipe Networks that are Subjected to the Combined Effects of External Corrosion and Internal Pressure
Author : Christoffel Gerhardus Van Deventer
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2013
Category :
Total pages :129
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Underground pipelines are used in various process piping systems to transport gasses or fluids and are usually subjected to the effects of external corrosion. Corrosion can be defined as the deterioration of a material due to a reaction with its environment or the destruction of the material by means that are not mechanical (Fontana and Greene, 1967:2). External corrosion, due to the interaction between the pipe and the soil, is generally a slow process and the corrosion rate is influenced by a variety of external factors. Some of these factors include the ambient pH and salinity, the presence of moisture and bacteria, temperature, the electrical potential difference between the pipe and other structures and the implementation of preventative measures (such as cathodic protection and wrapping). Although the external corrosion of underground pipelines is generally a slow process in mild environments, pipe degradation as a result of external corrosion remains one of the prevalent reasons for the failure of underground pipelines. As with many mechanical systems that are prone to fail at one time or the other, the high costs involved with unforeseen failure necessitate some quantitative (or qualitative) indication of the condition of the pipe system. Some of the costs that can be expected as a result of unforeseen pipeline failure are, amongst others: costs as a result of the failure of dependent systems: costs as a result of the loss of production: costs as a result of the loss of product (in distribution networks): the cost of unscheduled maintenance (logistical costs): costs as a result of damage to public property: fines imposed by customers (in distribution networks): costs related to pollution control, and the loss of life The single most important parameter associated with the condition of a system is its profitable remaining life. This is the time during which a sub-system contributes to the well-being of a larger system and the organisation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine, with reasonable accuracy, the extent of the remaining life of a system so that managerial decisions (i.e. investments, cash-flow analyses, maintenance task scheduling and replacement programmes), based on this figure, can be made. Done correctly, this can directly lead to a decrease in maintenance costs and subsequently to an increase in profit. The extent of a corrosive attack on the pipeline might be highly localised or might be fairly uniform over the length of the installation. The fact of the matter is that, since the pipe is buried, it is very difficult to quantify the external damage caused by corrosion. A variety of techniques are in use to survey pipelines and detect anomalies. However, for large pipelines, most of these techniques are either inefficient or too expensive. There will always remain some uncertainty regarding the integrity of the pipeline. The work presented in this study is explained with valid generic examples and aims: 1. to provide the reader with sufficient background information so that the need for determining the integrity of a pipeline becomes apparent: 2. to indicate why a reliability-centred approach is necessary (Chapter 1): 3. to explain the basic principles of corrosion and the electrochemical nature of corrosion (Chapter 2): 4. to indicate areas, based on the basic principles of corrosion, where severe corrosion can be expected (Chapters 2 and 7): 5. to provide and elaborate on information regarding pipe surveillance techniques that are currently available (Chapter 3): 6. to establish the criteria for pipeline failure, in the form of a limit state Junction, for pipes that are subjected to near-constant internal pressures (static failure domain) as well as for pipes subjected to varying internal pressures (fatigue domain) (Chapters 5 and 6): 7. to indicate the sensitivity of the fatigue domain solution to changes in the system variables and to indicate that a significant reduction in the system variables does not necessarily reduce the solution accuracy (Chapter 6), and 8. to integrate the above-mentioned into a practical and workable guideline that can be used to determine the remaining life of an underground pipe network (Chapter 7).

Development of Concepts for Corrosion Assessment and Evaluation of Underground Pipelines

Development of Concepts for Corrosion Assessment and Evaluation of Underground Pipelines
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1984
Category :
Total pages :48
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Underground corrosion of pipelines is best controlled by taking advantage of the synergistic effects that are developed when protective coatings are used in conjunction with cathodic protection. When these techniques are not used during pipe installation, or the corrosion control system deteriorates with age, leaks and failures result. These failures require maintenance, which involves economic analysis of repair or replace options. This report discusses the development of several new techniques for assessing and predicting the status of underground pipe corrosion. The polarization decay principle is a nondestructive technique which can determine corrosion status without having to dig up the pipe. The Corrosion Status Index Prediction Reports show quantification and prediction of corrosion damage. Concepts for computerized and manual corrosion management systems have been developed which will enable the Facilities Engineer to determine the most cost-effective options for repairing or replacing damaged pipe.

Corrosion of Underground Pipeline and Cathodic Protection

Corrosion of Underground Pipeline and Cathodic Protection
Author : Katsutomo Okamoto
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 198?
Category : Cathodic protection
Total pages :19
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Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection

Pipeline Corrosion and Cathodic Protection
Author : Marshall Parker,Edward G. Peattie
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 1984
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :166
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Here is hands-on information for taking measurements and making the calculations necessary for cathodic protection of buried pipe lines.

Modelling of External Corrosion Propagation for Buried Pipelines Based on Stochastic Processes

Modelling of External Corrosion Propagation for Buried Pipelines Based on Stochastic Processes
Author : Hui Wang
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 2015
Category : Bayesian statistical decision theory
Total pages :158
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Pipelines are considered to be the most favored and reliable mode for transporting large quantities of gas/liquid. In recent years, because the pipelines are interconnected at a national and global level and because of increasing economic and regulatory constraints in dealing with aging and corroded pipeline systems, pipeline integrity management is an area of increasing relevance in the petroleum industry. Metal deterioration caused by corrosive soil is one of the major threats to the integrity of underground pipeline systems. External localized corrosion is one of the most common defects that can occur under normal operating conditions.In this Dissertation, we consider the external corrosion in pipeline structures in a probabilistic and dynamic manner. Multiple uncertainties from soil environment, pipeline structure, inspection process and maintenance are considered. The correlation between the spatial distribution of the external corrosion defects and the heterogeneous soil properties has been investigated. The correlation analysis is conducted by employing clustering techniques. As for the time domain, the long-time corrosion process is considered as a dynamic stable evolution process which contains three stages: nucleation, propagation and repassivation. In this study, the uncertainties introduced by the in-line inspections are investigated by using calibration methods and detection theories. Both random error and systematic error are assessed. Finally, a comprehensive pipeline maintenance strategy is proposed as an integrated solution to improve the efficiency of inspections and maintenances in industry practice.The contributions of this dissertation include: 1) a probabilistic model for the prediction of metal loss rate in underground pipeline structure is proposed. The model is able to account for the model uncertainty which comes from the imperfect prior knowledge and estimate the PDF of metal loss rate at a specified location. 2) A Bayesian approach for calibrating and estimating the actual external corrosion depth in buried pipeline structures based on an ultrasonic ILI inspection and the clustering technique was developed. We have taken the probability of defect existence into consideration. Hence a more realistic assessment of pipeline integrity can be achieved. 3) A clustering approach based on a hidden Markov random field is established for assessing the spatial distribution of external corrosion in a buried pipeline. The clustering approach presented in this study is easy to implement with the established ICM-EM algorithm. 4) A novel stochastic model framework for predicting the external corrosion growth in buried pipeline structures is presented and a time- and location- dependent maintenance strategy is established. We relate the soil properties with the corrosion growth propagation. The geometric Brownian bridge model was employed to present the corrosion rate evolution and hence is able to represent the inherent time-dependent dynamic property of corrosion growth.

Underground Corrosion

Underground Corrosion
Author : Melvin Romanoff
Publisher : Unknown
Release Date : 1957
Category : Corrosion and anti-corrosives
Total pages :227
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Final report on the studies of underground corrosion conducted by the Bureau from 1910-1955.

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipelines

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipelines
Author : Y. Frank Cheng
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release Date : 2013-02-13
Category : Science
Total pages :288
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Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be prevented Pipelines sit at the heart of the global economy. When they are in good working order, they deliver fuel to meet the ever-growing demand for energy around the world. When they fail due to stress corrosion cracking, they can wreak environmental havoc. This book skillfully explains the fundamental science and engineering of pipeline stress corrosion cracking based on the latest research findings and actual case histories. The author explains how and why pipelines fall prey to stress corrosion cracking and then offers tested and proven strategies for preventing, detecting, and monitoring it in order to prevent pipeline failure. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipelines begins with a brief introduction and then explores general principals of stress corrosion cracking, including two detailed case studies of pipeline failure. Next, the author covers: Near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking of pipelines High pH stress corrosion cracking of pipelines Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines in acidic soil environments Stress corrosion cracking at pipeline welds Stress corrosion cracking of high-strength pipeline steels The final chapter is dedicated to effective management and mitigation of pipeline stress corrosion cracking. Throughout the book, the author develops a number of theoretical models and concepts based on advanced microscopic electrochemical measurements to help readers better understand the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking. By examining all aspects of pipeline stress corrosion cracking—the causes, mechanisms, and management strategies—this book enables engineers to construct better pipelines and then maintain and monitor them to ensure safe, reliable energy supplies for the world.

Cathodic Corrosion Protection Systems

Cathodic Corrosion Protection Systems
Author : Alireza Bahadori
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release Date : 2014-07-05
Category : Technology & Engineering
Total pages :492
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Corrosion is a naturally occurring cost, worth billions in the oil and gas sector. New regulations, stiffer penalties for non-compliance and aging assets are all leading companies to develop new technology, procedures and bigger budgets catering to one prevailing method of prevention, cathodic protection. Cathodic Corrosion Protection Systems: A Guide for Oil and Gas Industries trains on all the necessary reports, inspection criteria, corrective measures and critical standards needed on various oil and gas equipment, structures, tanks, and pipelines. Demands in the cathodic protection market have driven development for better devices and methods, helping to prolong the equipment and pipeline’s life and integrity. Going beyond just looking for leaks, this handbook gives the engineer and manager all the necessary tools needed to put together a safe cathodic protection system, whether it is for buried casing while drilling, offshore structures or submarine pipelines. Understand how to install, inspect and engage the right cathodic protection systems for various oil and gas equipment, tanks, and pipelines Properly construct the right procedure and anodes with all relevant US and International standards that apply Gain knowledge concerning techniques, equipment, measurements and test methods used in real-world field scenarios